On the issue of the Irish border, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is attached to the agreement and establishes a position of withdrawal which will only come into force in the absence of effective alternative provisions before the expiry of the transition period. In this case, the UK will eclipse the EU`s common external tariff and Northern Ireland will stick to aspects of the internal market until such an event is carried out. Neither party can unilaterally withdraw from this customs union. The aim of this backstop agreement is to avoid a “hard” border in Ireland, where customs controls are needed. [19] Steve Barclay, Minister for Brexit, signed the agreement on behalf of the United Kingdom with representatives of Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. The government has expressed a desire to join the convention, but this requires the agreement of all existing signatories: the EU, Denmark (which has an opt-out in this area and is itself a signatory), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union. [28] 7.After an investigation by Committee staff into the delay between the conclusion and signing of the agreement and the reason for its provisional application, officials from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) stated that the agreement had only entered into force in a scenario in which the EU withdrawal agreement had entered into force and that as such, “the signing of this agreement depended on the signing of the EU-EU ACCORD.” 2.The United Kingdom participates in a series of international agreements arising from its membership of the EU, which have strengthened its relations with the EFTA-EEA states (Iceland, the Principality of Liechtenstein and the Kingdom of Norway). The agreement is important in several respects. Firstly, the rights of EEA-EFTA citizens in the UK – and vice versa – are defined on the same basis as EU citizens.

Indeed, the authority that the UK will put in place to monitor the rights of EU citizens will now do the same for EEA-EFTA citizens. The withdrawal agreement also contains provisions for the United Kingdom to leave the Convention setting the status of European schools, with the United Kingdom bound by the Convention and accompanying regulations on accredited European schools until the end of the last academic year of the transition period, i.e. at the end of the spring semester 2020-2021. [20] On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement,[10] the largest vote against the British government in history. [31] The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day. [10] On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons. [32] A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons. [34] [35] [36] An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes. [37] The EFTA states of the United Kingdom and the EEA sign an agreement to protect citizens` rights and resolve wider issues of separation when the UK leaves the EU.